The aim of this dissertation is therefore to evaluate the political opportunities for the new Federal Republic of Ethiopia to overcome the consequences of the last twenty years of turmoil and also the legacy left by hundreds of years of most eventful history. Will this new set-up give Ethiopia enough political stability to put an end to the sombre period that started with the military coup in 1974? In other words, will the new institutional organisation soothe ethnic rivalry by giving a real possibility to each ethnic group to conduct their life the way they want within the broader community of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia? We will see that in May 1991, when the rebel groups seized power, ambitious perspectives were drawn for the country. In a second step, however, we’ll have to acknowledge that there are doubts about the adequacy between the ambitions written in the Constitution and the reality of the country.